Gnathology is a branch of dentistry that humans (but, in terms of comparative research in animals) studies the physiology and pathology and function of the jaw (chewing, swallowing, phonatory, postural) and therefore, studies the relationship between the jaws, teeth, temporomandibular joints left and right, the muscles that move the jaw and the nervous system that controls the muscles, including the tongue.

"The term" occlusion "refers literally to the contacts between the teeth of the opposing arch is in a static or dynamic. For "gnathology 'means the study of all the organs or systems from the physiological or pathological condition that can be connected dental occlusion"
(Mario Molina, Fundamentals of Modern gnathology)

It is a broader definition, which opens up a lot of space in correlation with many other organs or systems. It can be defined as postural Gnathology (some authors have called the "Ortoposturodonzia") increases, hence the importance of lingual function of respiration, respiration, cranial sacral, swallowing mediated hyoid bone with muscles to it connected (directly related: mandible, temporal bone of the skull, handlebars sternal bone, clavicle, first thoracic ribs, shoulder blades, cervical vertebrae). From these related areas of interest with the Gnathology posture, one can easily understand how the stomatognathic system is involved in the overall posture of the human being.

Gnathological therapy is to restore normal relations between the mandibular condyle, the articular disk and the glenoid fossa. It is therefore the position of each joint to the skull that makes the difference between success and failure. In order to serve primarily of resin and metal products (bite) that reposition the jaw while producing muscle relaxation of the masticatory muscles and all other muscles. Once deleted, contractures proceed with treatment for stabilization of the results, which may include the occlusal correction for application, by subtraction or modification by aids that can range from a simple selective grinding to eliminate interference (sometimes caused by restoration malposti) to restore the correct heights by onlays, crowns or edentulism with implants, then you can change positions with dental orthodontics. Since there are many schools gnathological therapeutic means may vary although it is pretty constant use of occlusal plaques (retraction / relaxation or "bite planes", indendate, orthotic, recapture meniscus protective, etc ...). If treatment is not successful, you can then try a different methodology, only in the case of permanent internal problems in the joints and as a last resort, after diagnosis instrumental (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Computed Tomography rarely temporo-mandibular joint), you can abandon the gnathology for resorting to more or less invasive surgery according to the degree of gravity of the problem (intra-articular irrigation, endoscopic surgery, surgery ATM classical)

Taken from Wikipedia